Our Benefactors

Blog Post, NSMC 2019

I love video games. Growing up the the 90s meant the magic of Mario, Donkey Kong and Zelda. Now social media has replaced Super Nintendo and whilst a large portion of my twitter feed is dedicated to nephrology there is an equally large portion dedicated to gaming and the culture which has grown up around this.

There is now an established culture of streaming in video games via services such as Twitch in which people play a video game for an online audience who watch and interact through the chat and media presence of the streamer. It’s big enough now for some people to make it their full-time job. One of the better things that can occur with streaming is charity streams, in which big name streamers play video games for a charitable cause in order to raise money. It’s surprising how much good can be done through this type of philanthropic endeavor. People such as Dr Lupo raised over $1million for St Jude’s Children’s Research Hospital through charity streaming in 2018, or Arin Hanson from the Game Grumps who raised $55,000 in a single siting for Healing Horse Therapy Centre.

But I digress. Recently, a chap by the name of HBomberGuy did a charity stream of Donkey Kong 64 in order to raise money and awareness of the rights of trans people,  after Graham Linehan was accused of making disparaging comments via his social media account towards them. Video gaming has its own cultural sphere on social media and one of the curious things about social media is its unpredictability as to what exactly will capture the hearts and minds of the internet as a whole. Well this event certainly did. Via word of mouth over social media platforms and the appearance of several video-gaming celebrities, United States based politicians like Alexandria Oscasio-Cortez and Chelsea Manning, the stream blew up and helped raise over $340,000 for Mermaids, a United Kingdom based charity supporting trans rights. It’s by far one of the most wholesome and kindest stories I’ve heard in some time, and one could not help but feel inspired by it.

So musing on the fantastic work that HBomberGuy recently did with his stream to raise awareness for trans rights, I had to ask myself, would it be possible to do a similar thing for nephrology? Could I play video games in a similar vein (after all, I do love them and want to advocate for my patients and spread awareness of kidney disease at the same time) for a good cause and will the community rally behind me and provide donations to those organisations which need it most? Unfortunately, the answer realistically is, probably not.

Firstly, I would never presume that I would have influence, anywhere near that of these big streamers, who make such things their careers. And unfortunately without that kind of clout such a project is probably going to have little momentum getting off the ground. Secondly, such things are fluid and evolve naturally through the same grapevine that social media and the internet works on. Something just captures peoples’ imaginations for whatever reason and it becomes an event – you can’t plan for that. It just happens. And lastly is a point brought up by Laura Dale, a trans woman who co-hosts a video games podcast (which I listen to each week) who pointed out that part of the reason this had the success it did is because it was a cis person doing it, and not someone from within the trans community. It is easier for people to rally behind a cause when it isn’t a member from the minority group that is championing it.

And this point is the last reason why it might be difficult for such an event specifically for kidney disease to take hold if I was running it. While I am fortunate not to have chronic kidney disease, my natural role as a clinician is to advocate for my patients. In this way I am not separate from this group, thus directly counteracting this crucial component.

Advocacy for kidney patients and video games! Is there a way to marry these two ideas together? Or is there any other way in which we can capture the imagination of the general public (in short, go viral!) in order to raise money to help those with kidney disease?

Could we as a group approach a larger streamer and ask for their assistance in a charity stream for kidney disease? Would it garner enough support? I honestly cannot answer these questions as I sit here and softly tap away at my keyboard. But perhaps by drawing attention to my musings our community as a whole might be able to achieve more things for our patients.

P.S. The title of this blog post is also a direct nod to a level from a video game. Props to anyone who knows which one I am referencing.

‘Size and Flow Matter’ – Memoir of an AV fistula

Blog Post, NSMC 2019

My name is Fistulus Magnus. I came to this world a decade ago, by the hands of a very skilled surgeon, who anastomosed my host’s brachial artery to his cephalic vein. My host’s name is Mr. Hohf. I take a lot of pride in having served Mr. Hohf diligently over the years. He unfortunately suffers from end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) that resulted from diabetes and is currently undergoing in-center hemodialysis three times a week.

You must be wondering where I got my name. Well, it was bestowed upon me by the other fistulas at the dialysis unit. While some never quite served their hosts with the appropriate blood flow on dialysis, others were just not mature enough for the job (no pun intended). I, on the other hand, was raging through every single dialysis session without issues. All the other fistulas looked up to me. My size spoke for itself. I was the Arnold Schwarzenegger of all fistulas. Big, tortuous, pulsatile and most importantly, easy to poke. Dialysis nurses loved me, but Mr. Hohf, not so much. He would constantly try to keep me away from prying eyes under his long sleeves but I took no offence. Deep down under, I knew I was the reason he was still alive. After all, as the good nephrologist always says, ‘Your fistula is your lifeline’. I carried on and did my duty.

Example of a dilated and tortuous AV fistula.
https://bjaed.org/article/S2058-5349(17)30161-0/pdf

I was worried for Mr. Hohf though. He has required recurrent hospital admissions for ‘volume overload’ and ‘hypoxic respiratory failure’ over the past year (No, I did not go to medical school, but years of being around medical people teaches you medical terms). We were now at our fourth admission in eight months. His most recent echocardiogram showed grade 2 diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension with peak pulmonary artery (PA) pressure of 60 mmHg, dilated inferior vena cava and a high cardiac output of about 8 L/min. Although, his dialysis treatments were optimized to ensure euvolemia, but his respiratory status remained tenuous. A left heart catheterization showed non obstructive coronary artery disease, with high left ventricular end diastolic pressure of 22 mmHg. CT scan chest with pulmonary embolism (PE) protocol was negative. Infections were ruled out. He had no chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. It was presumed that Mr. Hohf was non-compliant with dietary restrictions and his dialysis unit miscalculated his dry weight. The heart failure was attributed to non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. While in the hospital, his dialysis sessions were complicated by  intra-dialytic hypotension and development of cramps. Discharge to home then ensued. Shortly after, we were back with the same issues, despite adhering to fluid and salt restriction and outpatient dialysis.

‘I have good exercise capacity but I just cannot handle this fistula’

One fine morning during our fifth admission, a team of nephrologists laid eyes on me. Mr. Hohf was on high flow oxygen therapy, with accessory muscles working as hard as they could. The medical team was paying attention to me and I was keen to show them my excellent skills on dialysis. One of the nephrologists reached out to my anastomotic site and occluded the blood flow to the point of augmenting the pulse at my inflow. The other physician measured Mr. Hohf’s blood pressure and pulse, while I was being compressed against the shaft of the humerus. They noticed a 20 mmHg increase in blood pressure and drop in heart rate by  20 beats per minute. “The Nicoladoni Brenham sign!” one of them exclaimed, with a glow in his eyes reminiscent of kids on Easter.

The next day, a duplex study was done that revealed a flow of almost 4L/min through my outflow tract. This was more than 30% of Mr. Hohf’s cardiac output! ‘Duh! I wouldn’t expect anything less. I am Fistulus Magnus after all’, I told myself. Unfortunately, reality started to unfold. We were taken for a repeat echocardiogram where the same maneuver was performed followed by measurement of the cardiac output. Indeed there was a 30% drop in cardiac output on occlusion of my anastomotic site. I was ‘hemodynamically significant’ they said. I was the cause of Mr. Hohf’s recurrent admissions and pulmonary hypertension. I was the reason why Mr. Hohf’s heart was failing.

The hemodynamic changes following AV fistula creation. Sometimes, blood flow increases to undesirable limits. https://journal.chestnet.org/article/S0012-3692(17)32290-0/pdf

All these years, I fulfilled my duties believing strongly that I was doing the best for my host; growing bigger and bigger and allowing higher blood flows. It turns out I was shunting too much blood back to the heart and the myocytes were having a hard time coping with the workload. I was like a dam with flood gates wide open, resulting in a downstream reservoir that could barely cope with the gigantic rush of water. Owing to my size, tortuosity and blood flow, I was causing more harm than good. A diagnosis of ‘high output cardiac failure due to arteriovenous (AV) fistula’ was assigned to us.

So what next? The nephrologists recommended that I undergo banding to reduce my size and blood flow. It was a reality check, but I warded off all apprehension and proceeded with the procedure.

The surgery was performed successfully and we were both sent home. I felt very frail and flimsy, but dialysis seemed to run well regardless. Most importantly, Mr. Hohf had not had an admission in over six months and he had a better control over his breathing and volume status. A follow up echocardiogram showed that his pulmonary hypertension had improved with peak PA pressure of 40 mmHg and cardiac output of 5.0 L/min.

In the end I realized that things worked out for the best, and  saved Mr. Hohf many hospital admissions, mental stress and procedures. My colleagues at dialysis tell me this is a rare condition, but it may very well be more common than we think.  Physicians should keep a higher index of suspicion for conditions like this. There is a newbie across the hallway who is sizing up to be like my previous self. I will make sure to give him a well informed word of advice: ‘Size…and flow matter.’

#NephPath – The Tubulointerstitium

Blog Post, NSMC 2019

NephPath 101 – Understanding the tubulointerstitium. – by NSMC2019 intern and nephro-pathologist Vighnesh Walavalkar.

Check out the original post on Renal Fellow Network

Excerpt –

The tubulointerstitium of the kidney is broadly divided into the cortex and the medulla. These are extremely important components of the kidney, which can show a broad spectrum of changes ranging from subtle to significant, in both acute and chronic kidney injury. Therefore, in order to recognize the pathologic changes in these areas, one must first be familiar with its normal architecture

In this post, we will cover the main histologic features of the normal tubulointerstitium as seen on diagnostic kidney biopsies. For a more in-depth review please refer to my favorite references for kidney pathology: Heptinstall’s Pathology of the Kidney, Silva’s Diagnostic Renal Pathology and Renal Pathophysiology, The Essentials.

DNAJB9: Demystifying Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis

Blog Post, NSMC 2019

Fibrillary glomerulonephritis (GN) is a rare disease which accounts for about 1% of all kidney biopsies. The very first description of the disease was published by Rosenmann and Eliakim in 1977. They described a patient with nephrotic syndrome due to deposition of what they describe as “an amyloid-like material in the glomeruli,” but upon ultrastructural analysis, this material “appeared shorter than amyloid fibrils”

Post by NSMC2019 Intern and Nephrology Fellow – Lovy Gaur

Link to original post on Renal Fellow Network



My First 9 Visual Abstracts

Blog Post

#NephMadness gave me the opportunity to learn and practice how to create visual abstracts. The #VisualAbstract is an effective and efficient way to disseminate research, and they are also fun to make! Here are some of my first attempts below (click to enlarge, made in Powerpoint):

 

Samira Farouk, MD

Chief Nephrology Fellow, Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai

NSMC Intern 2018

NephMadness Choosing Wisely Campaign: Kidney Donor Risk vs Virally Infected Kidneys (#TransplantRegion)

Blog Post

The first matchup in the #TransplantRegion leaves us with two tantalizing options: “Kidney Donor Risk” and “Virally Infected Kidneys”. How does one possibly choose between the bold risk one takes when choosing to save a life and the now possible but previously unimaginable transplantation of kidneys infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the curable Hepatitis C (HCV)?

Let’s take a quick look at team #KidneyDonorRisk. Why should we care about kidney donor risk? Well, even the first kidney donor in 1954 ultimately progressed to end stage renal disease (ESRD)…

Since 1954, we have developed new tools to better quantify a potential kidney donor’s ESKD  risk, like this calculator – which can be used to calculate any donor’s pre-donation 15 year and life time ESKD risk. In addition, 2-time APOL1 champion may easily carry this team to the saturated 16. Would you advise kidney donation to a patient with 2 APOL1 risk alleles, given that 2 out of 19 patients developed ESKD after a median follow up of one year in one small study? If you’re still not convinced, take another look at @KristaLentine’s support of this team as the winner of not only this matchup, but also of the entire #TransplantRegion. She emphasizes the importance of the understanding of donor risk and transparency of communicating this risk.

If #KidneyDonorRisk isn’t your thing, maybe you’re a believer in the #VirallyInfectedKidneys.

And why wouldn’t you be? The THINKER trial showed us that HCV + kidneys can now be transplanted into HCV – recipients, with successful treatment of HCV post transplantation. A limited kidney donor pool may ultimately be significantly expanded, if HCV+ kidneys are no longer discarded.  Similarly, the HOPE (HIV Organ Policy Equity) Act has resulted in the transplantation of HIV+ organs and promising  overall and graft survival rates.

Now what? You’ve read @paulphel‘s comprehensive scouting report and seen enough visual abstracts, but all that really matters is the Blue Ribbon Panel. I predict team #KidneyDonorRisk to win this matchup, and here are the 5 of 9 Blue Ribbon Panelists that I’m most confident will help advance it to the next round:

  1. @FionaCLoud:  She’s a kidney transplant recipient and fierce advocate. It seems likely that she’ll keep #KidneyDonorRisk in her bracket.
  2. @DrDeidraCrews:  She researches the impact of racial disparities on chronic kidney disease, and has published on the disparities in access to kidney transplantation.
  3. @Mike_J_Choi: He’s an author on a 2013 NEJM study describing APOL1 risk variants, race, and progression of CKD. I don’t expect him to forget about APOL1 so quickly.
  4. Tazeen Jafar – She has studied predictors of low eGFR after kidney donation, in a Southeast population from Singapore.
  5. @medicalaxioms –  He probably cares about the #KidneyDonorRisk. The tweet below says it all:

Ready to make your pick? Submit your bracket here.

Samira Farouk, NSMC Intern 2018 @ssfarouk